“Mastering Thermodynamics: 102 – Fundamentals, Laws, and Processes”

"Mastering Thermodynamics: Part 1 - Fundamentals, Laws, and Processes"

Table of Contents

Hello friend we are going to start the new subject of rac this the 

part 1 so let’s start
By the end of this section, you will be able to

Topic to be covered

  • Definition of Thermodynamic
  • Basic terms in Thermodynamic
  • Laws of Thermodynamics
  • Thermodynamic Processes


The science that encompasses the study of energy, its transformation and relationship amongst the various physical quantities of substance which are affected by cause these transformations.



System :-

Prescribed region of space or finite quantity of matter surrounded by an envelope called the boundary. 

Closed System, open system and isolated system 


Closed system:-

in which only energy interaction takes place between system and surrounding. ex. piston cylinder arrangement.

Open system:-

in which both mass interaction and energy takes place between system and surrounding. ex. boiler, turbine, condenser, pump, compressor, evaporator, nozzle, diffuser, piston cylinder arrangement with valves

Isolated system:- 

Energy and mass is not transfer. ex. universe, thermos flask

Surrounding :-

The space and matter external to the thermodynamic system and outside boundary is called the surrounding. 


Universe :-

When system and the surrounding are put together it is called universe.


Work :-

Work is done by a system if the sole effect on the surroundings (everything external to the system) could be raising of a weight. 

Heat :-

Heat is defined as the form of energy that is transferred across the boundary of a system at a given temperature to another system (or the surrounding) at a lower temperature by virtue of temperature difference between the two systems. in this heat is deal with the W and KW it is not deal with J and KJ.

Property :-

Measurable characteristics describing the system that depends on the state of the system and is independent of the path (that is, the prior history) by which the system arrived at the given state. 

• Intensive Property 

• Extensive Property

intensive property :-

Which are independent of mass of system. for example temperature is constant in room. intensive property is temperature, pressure, specific entropy.

extensive property :-
Which are dependant of mass fo system. for example kinetic energy K.E. = 1/2 m v2 , potential energy(U=mgh).

State :-

Unique condition of the system, at an instant of time, described by its properties. 

Process :-

Path of succession of state points through which the system passes during transition from one state to another state is called a process. 

Cycle :-

When a system in a given initial state goes through a number of different changes of states or processes and finally returns to the initial state, the system has undergone a cycle.


  • Zeroth law

  • First law

  • Second law

Zeroth law

The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.  
Zeroth law
Zeroth law

First law

In a cyclic process the cyclic integral of heat transfer to system is equal to the cyclic integral of the work transfer to the surrounding.
The internal energy of a closed system remains unchanged the system is isolated from the surroundings.
A perpetual motion of machine of first kind is impossible.

Second law of Thermodynamics or 

Qualitative low / Direction Law  or 

law of degradation of energy

 FLOT Simply said that total energy is conserve but it don’t provide any information regarding the physibility of the possible energy conversation.  
It is the SLOT which provides the direction of possible energy conversation through the concept of entropy and due to this reason it is applied first in numerical to find out possible energy conversation direction then apply FLOT
Note :-
1) heat is considered as low grade energy and work is a high grade energy 
2) complete conversion of heat into work is not possible but the complete conversion of work in heat is possible.

Kelvin planks :-

it is impossible to construct a device which operate in a cycle produce work continuously while interacting with single thermal reservoir

Clausius statement :-

 it is impossible to construct a device which transfer heat from low temperature reservoir to high temperature reservoir without consuming any from of energy. 

Thermodynamics process for closed system 

  • Isothermal process 
  • Isobaric process 
  • Isochoric process 
  • Polytropic process 
  • Adiabatic process 
  • Isentropic process
  • Isothermal process:- an isothermal process is a type of thermodynamic process in which the temperature T of a system remains constant: ΔT = 0.
Isothermal process
  •  Isobaric process :- during which the system’s pressure does not change.
Isobaric process.
  • Isochoric process :- during which the system’s volume does not change.
    Isochoric process
  • Polytropic process :- where p is the pressure, V is volume, n is the polytropic index, and C is a constant. 
Formula of Polytropic Process
  • Adiabatic process :-  is a type of thermodynamic process that occurs without transferring heat or mass.
  • Isentropic process :- an idealized thermodynamic process that is both adiabatic and reversible.



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