Research Paper: Fire Extinguisher Drone-2024

Table of Contents

Research Paper Fire Extinguisher Drone-2024

“Research Paper Fire Extinguisher Drone”

Centered H2 Tag

[1] Vadgama Abhishek, [2] Busa Utsav, [3] Chauhan Maulik

[1] [2] [3] IVth Semester B.E. Mechanical Students


In this paper of Fire Extinguisher Drone, The drone commonly known as Quad copters are this drone operated through a remote control system to fly independently. The main advantage of providing on demand monitoring service faster than the current approaches of using satellite images, remotely controlled drones. it is an object of the present invention to provide a fire drone for fire suppression that can freely move ground and fly in narrow place inside building where free entry of high rise buildings is not secured and visibility can be accelerated. In this drone we are attach auto fire off (AFO) ball with the help of clamping device it can be throw a ball in a fire. Advantage of AFO ball we can easily carry out ball compare to water. It is highly efficient extinguisher the fire to compare with water. In this ball dry powders (MP dry powders) with melamine phosphate as extinguishing component was prepared by using the ball-milling method. in this ball around 0.5 kg size ball extinguished a circle 1meter of short grass.


"Introduction of Fire Extinguisher Drone"

Generally fire fighting is done by humans and fire equipment which are operated manually. This system will not work to find the victims are there in that situation and practically It is not easy for a human to enter into the hazard place and find the victims so FFD is the best solution to find out the victims and also to control the fire. This paper explains the components that are to be used to build a drone, to find best thermal resistance material, firefighting equipment.This is designed to use in very extreme temperature conditions and all this will be controlled at the ground station manually. At present the firefighters crawl into the buildings and look for survivors using the FLIR (Thermal imaging infrared cameras) and finding out the victims manually by putting their lives at risk. The drone is used to find out the victims in the hazard and find out the hot spots. This helps to reduce the loss of lives of firefighters. This can be enabled by operating the drone who can navigate through the building quickly without any fear of crashing it to anything. For example the roles of forests in nature can be listed as cleansing water, stabilizing the soil, cycling nutrients, controlling the climate, absorbing carbon dioxide, and producing oxygen. They are the habitats for the wildlife, and an important segment of the country’s economic wealth In This ball multipurpose dry powders have been widely used in the portable fire extinguisher and the fixed fire extinguishing system because of its high extinguishing effectiveness, wide range of applications, safety and environmental friendly, etc. The extinguishing mechanism is complicated especially for Class A fires, previous studies point to some mechanisms such as thermal cooling, physical covering and any type of mass-transfer inhibition.

Using component fire extinguisher drone

  1. Fire fighting drone (FFD)
  2. The passive infrared camera(human detector)
  3. Thermographic camera(FLIR)
  4. Fire extinguisher ball
  5. Motors
  6. "Component Specifications"

    1). "Fire Fighting Drone"

    • Performance:
      • Q ground control mission planner with included long-range 900 MHz telemetry radio.
      • Advanced, high bandwidth position hold offering unprecedented precision, repeatability, and stability.
      • Lift a 15 kg payload for 12 to 15 minutes. Silent drive technology, low noise, and precise, efficient, closed-loop control of the propeller.
      • Iron has to 18-inch folding props. Proven CineStar/ALTA performance, reliability, and robustness.
      • User-definable LED light for max pilot visibility and control.
      • High-speed data logging.
      • Optimized, lightweight motors.
      • Incredible efficiency (watt/gram).
      • Auto-pilot controlling.
    • Equipment Modifications for Fire Fighting Drone:
      • Thermal camera to identify fire source and hot spot.
      • Infrared camera that detects humans and animals.
      • Extinguishing agent tanks, including power, foam, water, or specialized liquids.
      • Mist distributors that spray a cooling mist to let drones and firefighters get closer to a fire.
      • High-definition camera that can help identify products and codes on packaging to determine potentially dangerous and flammable goods.
      • potentially dangerous and flammable good.

    Safety Features

    • Safety:
      • Dual flight packs.
      • Extensive data logging and review utilities to ensure system performance over time.
      • Redundant motor control signals.
      • Auto RTH/land.
      • Integrated and customizable LEDs for orientation.
      • Sensors alert the pilot to mechanical issues with the machine, such as propeller balance, motor damage, etc.
      • Critical electrical components mounted in a weather-resistant shell.
      • All PCB conformal coated for maximum durability and weather resistance.

    2). "The Passive Infrared Camera (Human Detector)"

    Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) Sensor

    • A Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) Sensor is a pyroelectric device that can sense infrared (IR) radiation changes within its viewing range.
    • These sensors are sensitive to moving objects radiating IR light.
    • A PIR sensor creates temporary electric potential whenever a change of IR radiation occurs on the viewing range of the sensor, but the electric potential generated is very small in amplitude and must be amplified significantly.
    • PIR sensors cannot be used alone; instead, they become one of the key components of a passive infrared device (PID) with some other circuitry.
    • The basic structure of a PID contains four main structures: A Fresnel lens, a PIR sensor, an amplifier circuit, and a comparator plus time delay circuitry.
    • A passive infrared sensor (PIRs) measures infrared light emitted from objects that generate heat, and therefore infrared radiation, in its field of view.
    • The sensor is actually split into two halves so as to detect not the radiation itself, but the change in condition that occurs when a target enters its field.
    • Changes in the amount of infrared radiation on the element in turn change the voltages generated, which are measured by an on-board amplifier.
    • When motion is detected, the PIR sensor outputs a high signal on its output pin, which can either be read by an MCU or drive a transistor to switch a higher current load.


    • In a technological context, a drone is an unmanned aircraft.
    • Drones are more formally known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or unmanned aircraft systems.
    • Essentially, a drone is a flying robot.
    The Passive Infrared Camera (Human Detector)

    3)."Thermographic Camera"

    Infrared energy is just one part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which encompasses radiation from:

    • Gamma rays
    • X-rays
    • Ultraviolet
    • A thin region of visible light
    • Infrared
    • Terahertz waves
    • Microwaves
    • Radio waves

    All objects emit a certain amount of black body radiation as a function of their temperature.

    Images from infrared cameras:

    • Tend to be monochrome because the cameras generally use an image sensor that does not distinguish different wavelengths of infrared radiation.
    • Color image sensors require a complex construction to differentiate wavelengths, and color has less meaning outside of the normal visible spectrum because the differing wavelengths do not map uniformly into the system of color vision used by humans.
    • Sometimes these monochromatic images are displayed in pseudo-color, where changes in color are used rather than changes in intensity to display changes in the signal.

    For use in temperature measurement, the colors are customized:

    1. Brightest (warmest) parts of the image are customarily colored white.
    2. Intermediate temperatures are reds and yellows.
    3. Dimmest (coolest) parts are black.

    Their resolution is considerably lower than that of optical cameras, mostly only 160 x 120 or 320 x 240 pixels, although more expensive cameras can achieve a resolution of 1280 x 1024 pixels.

    Thermographic cameras are much more expensive than their visible-spectrum counterparts. Low-performance add-on thermal cameras for smartphones became available for hundreds of dollars in 2014.

    Higher-end models are often deemed as dual-use and export-restricted, particularly if the resolution is 640 x 480 or greater, unless the refresh rate is 9 Hz or less.

    The export of thermal cameras is regulated by International Traffic in Arms Regulations. In uncooled detectors, the temperature differences at the sensor pixels are minute; a 1 °C difference at the scene induces just a 0.03 °C difference at the sensor.

    The pixel response time is also fairly slow, in the range of tens of milliseconds.

    Thermographic Camera

    4)."Fire Extinguisher Ball"

    The conceptual design is based on fire extinguishing balls being released from a small unmanned aircraft system (UAS) to mitigate the risks associated with wildfires to manned crafts, firefighter crew, and society.

    The proposed remote-sensing technology concept can be used to monitor, detect, diagnose, prognose all categories in Table 1, whereas the fire extinguishing balls can be effective for the categories up to 8 feet.

    It could essentially be applicable in wild land urban interface zone fires rather than large scale forest fires.

    A fire extinguishing ball is a sphere-shaped product made of Styrofoam filled with environmentally friendly non-toxic chemical powders.

    The manufacturers claim that the ball self-activates within at least 3 seconds of contact with the fire; explodes and releases the extinguishing agents [8,9].

    There are currently two main brands of fire extinguishing balls in the marketplace: the Elide and the AFO. Elide is made in Thailand, whereas AFO is made in China. The Elide ball is 1.5 ± 0.2 kg, with a diameter of 147 mm [8,9]. AFO balls are available in three different sizes; the smallest ball weighs around 0.5 kg, the medium ball weighs around 0.7 kg, and the largest ball weighs around 1.3 kg.

    The Elide ball is the patented pioneer version with global certifications including ISO 9001:2008.

    The manufacturers of both brands claim that these balls are effective against fires involving solid burning materials (Class A), flammable liquids and gases (Class B), and energized electrical equipment (Class C) [8,9]. However, no information with respect to effectiveness for wildfires is provided by the manufacturers. Thus, the objective of this initial part of the research was to experiment with the use of these balls for building fires and wildfires.

    However, no information with respect to effectiveness for wildfires are provided by the manufacturers. Thus, the objective of this initial part of the research was to experiment with the use of these balls for building fires and wildfires.

    5).Motor in Quadcopter

    The most used type of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle known as Quadcopter has gained its popularity among hobbyists and researchers in the field of Aerodynamics due to its special features. These include its simplicity in design and its ability to be controlled easily by adjusting the speed of the Brushless DC motor based on the Pulse Width Modulated Signal sent to it.

    The four motors arranged at its corners bring about the name Quadcopter. Similar to the helicopter, it has propellers attached to each of its motors which are directed upwards. By rapidly spinning these rotors, it pushes air downwards, creating a thrust force, thus keeping it aloft.

    The arrangement of the four motors is such that they are equally spaced at the corners of the squared body. The motors are placed in a square formation with an equal distance from the center of the body mass of the quadcopter. The rotation of these motors is such that two adjacent motors move in opposite directions. This is done to enable the thrust created by such rotations to be concentrated at the center of the quadcopter, opposing external forces trying to pull it down, ensuring its lifting.

    The simplicity of this quadcopter design comes at the cost of its stability. Improving its capability and efficiency by adjusting the system stability to be more stable requires detailed consideration and analysis of those factors that constitute this problem of instability.

    As the speed of the motors attached to the frame of the quadcopter is being altered to produce thrust enabling the movement of the quadcopter, it also produces an electrical torque. This torque has a direct positive or negative effect on the stability of the system. If not properly combated, the effect caused by this torque can make the whole system unstable and lead to an unexpected crash during flight.

    This paper focuses on analyzing the effect of electrical torque on the physical behavior of the quadcopter for optimal control.

    Material Selection Of Drone

    in this paper we choose many type of material to suitable in our domain problem. We are selecting many material like as iron, graphite, silicon carbide(sic), ceramic etc. we see some observation from the material that given in below chart.

    Material Properties Table

    Material Properties

    Material Density (gm/cm3) Melting Point (°C) Structure Strength (MPa) Thermal Conductivity (W·m−1·K−1) Hardness (BHN)
    Iron 7.874 1538 Up to 1180K - bcc 275 to 675 79.5 200 to 270
    Graphite 3.53 3550 Above 1180K - fcc 4.8 225 to 470 45.5
    Silicon Carbide 3.21 2730 Hexagonal (hcc) 130 to 1395 180–250
    Ceramic 2 to 6 1600 Tetrahedral Fluorite 500 to 945 Increasing up to 1000

    After studying the above chart, we have concluded the following:

    Graphite: Graphite has a higher melting point than all the substances, but its thermal conductivity is high. This could potentially damage the drone circuit during operation. Additionally, graphite is brittle, making it unsuitable for use in drones.

    Silicon Carbide: Silicon carbide has a higher melting point than iron and ceramic, and it also has higher strength. However, it has a low thermal resistance coefficient and is brittle, making it unsuitable for drone material as it may become damaged during a rescue operation.

    Ceramic: Ceramic has a melting point of 1600 °C and a fluorite structure. It has lower strength compared to silicon carbide and higher thermal conductivity, making it unsuitable for drone material due to the risk of damaging the drone circuit and wires.

    Iron: Iron has low thermal conductivity, is ductile, and has more strength compared to the above materials. Therefore, we can use iron as a suitable material for drones.

    Coating of Zirconium Diboride

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is a highly covalent refractory ceramic material with a hexagonal crystal structure. ZrB2 is an ultra high temperature ceramic (UHTC) with a melting point of 3246 °C.

    This along with its relatively low density of ~6.09 g/cm3 (measured density may be higher due to hafnium impurities) and good high temperature strength makes it a candidate for high temperature aerospace applications such as hypersonic flight or rocket propulsion systems.

    It is an unusual ceramic, having relatively high thermal and electrical conductivities, properties it shares with is structural titanium diboride and hafnium diboride.

    ZrB2 parts are usually hot pressed (pressure applied to the heated powder) and then machined to shape. Sintering of ZrB2 is hindered by the material’s covalent nature and presence of surface oxides which increase grain coarsening before densification during sintering.

    Pressure less sintering of ZrB2 is possible with sintering additives such as boron carbide and carbon which react with the surface oxides to increase the driving force for sintering but mechanical properties are degraded compared to hot pressed ZrB2.

    Additions of ~30 vol% SiC to ZrB2 is often added to ZrB2 to improve oxidation resistance through SiC creating a protective oxide layer – similar to aluminum’s protective alumina layer.

    ZrB2 is used in ultra-high temperature ceramic matrix composites. Carbon fiber reinforced zirconium diboride composites show high toughness while silicon carbide fiber reinforced zirconium diboride composites are brittle and show a catastrophic failure.

    Powder coating

    Powder coating is a type of coating that is applied as a free-flowing, dry powder. Unlike conventional liquid paint which is delivered via an evaporating solvent, powder coating is typically applied electrostatic ally and then cured under heat.

    The powder may be a thermoplastic or a thermo set polymer. It is usually used to create a hard finish that is tougher than conventional paint.

    Powder coating is mainly used for coating of metals, such as household appliances, iron part of drone Newer technologies allow other materials, such as MDF, to be powder coated using different methods.

    The powder coating process was invented around 1945 by Daniel Gustin.


    The fire extinguisher drone is more effectively other than system. We are come on the conclusion that other material which is brittle and more thermal conductivity as compare to another material but iron consist of proper way of strength, thermal conductivity, hardness and melting point which is suitable for making drone which is bear all the condition which is occur in rescue place.

    Than powder coating is the more important because the powder coating resistance fire for circuit of drone.

    we are used Zirconium diboride (ZrB2 ) as powder coating because it is consist high thermal resistivity and it is bear high temperature during rescue so we are using this powder.


    • An article on Automatic CO2 Extinguisher Fire Fighting Drone Ethara Bala Vyshnavi, Amareswari Ambati, Gorantla Chamundeswari, Garre Vineetham IVth Year B.Tech ECE Students, Dr.Sk.Khamuruddeen, Faculty Dept. of ECE KKR & KSR Institute of Technology & Sciences Guntur, India.
    • Wildfire Monitoring in Remote Areas using Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Fatemeh Afghah, Abolfazl Razi, Jacob Chakareski, Jonathan Ashdown School of Informatics, Computing and Cyber Systems, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA
    • Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA
    • Air Force Research Laboratory, Rome, NY, USA
    • Zirconium Diboride - Wikipedia
    • Fire Extinguisher - Wikipedia
    • Experimental study on fires extinguishing properties of melamine phosphate powders SONG Fudang, DU Zhiming, CONG Xiaomin, ZHAO Linshuang, YAN Ye, LI Linming

    Here Is the link of product Purchasing that use in this drone

    Fire Extinguisher Ball

    Fire Fighting Drone (FFD)

    Passive Infrared Camera (Human Detector)

    Thermographic Camera (FLIR)

    Clamping Device


    Related Reads

    For those hungry for more knowledge, our exploration doesn't end here. Dive deeper into the world of engineering and design with these captivating reads:

    Embark on a knowledge expedition, and let the mysteries of thermodynamics fuel your curiosity. Happy exploring!

Table of Contents

7 thoughts on “Research Paper: Fire Extinguisher Drone-2024”

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top