CNC Machine Definition, Need, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages And It’s Application

CNC Machine Definition, Need, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages And It’s Application

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

CNC Machine Definition, Need, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages And It's Application

“CNC Machine Definition, Need, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages And It's Application”

Hello Friend In This Blog We Have To Cover Of All The Topic To Related To CNC Machine In This Article You Have To Knowledge About

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What is CNC Machine?

● Conventionally, an operator decides and adjusts various machines parameters like feed, depth of cut, rpm etc. depending on the type of job, and controls the slide movements by hand. In a NC Machine functions and slide movements are controlled by motors using a set of instructions called a program.

● Numerical Control is defined as the form of programmable automation, in which the process is controlled by numbers, letters and symbols. In case of machine tools this programmable automation is used for the operation of machines. In initial years of NC, punched tapes/cards were used for feeding the instructions to the machine tools via control unit. For every new type job, the program of instructions is to be changed.

Computer Numeric Control (CNC):

● In this machines programs are fed in the computer which is used to control the operations of the machine. which a computer is used to control all the machine movements as per program stored in computer memory.”

NC + Computer = CNC

Need Of The CNC Machine

Modern precision manufacturing demands extreme dimensional accuracy and surface finish. Such performance is very difficult to achieve manually, if not impossible, even with expert operators. In cases where it is possible, it takes much higher time due to the need for frequent dimensional measurement to prevent overcutting. It is thus obvious that automated motion control would replace manual “hand wheel” control in modern manufacturing.

A modern CNC machine works in a closed loop system.

There are mainly 6 basic elements of the machine:

  1. Input Devices: These are the devices which are used to input the part program in this machine. Commonly pen drive, card, LAN, or manual input is used for inserting the program.
  2. Machine Control Unit (MCU): It is the heart of the machine. It performs all the controlling action of the machine. The various functions performed by the MCU are:
    • It reads the coded instructions fed into it.
    • It decodes the coded instructions.
    • It implements interpolation (linear, circular, and helical) to generate axis motion commands.
    • It feeds the axis motion commands to the amplifier circuits for driving the axis mechanisms.
    • It receives the feedback signals of position and speed for each drive axis.
    • It implements the auxiliary control functions such as coolant or spindle on/off and tool change.
    • Receives feedback from the encoder.
  1. Driving Unit: The driving system of the machine consists of amplifier circuits, drive motors, and ball lead screw. The MCU feeds the signals (i.e., of position and speed) of each axis to the amplifier circuits. The control signals are then augmented (increased) to actuate the drive motors. The actuated drive motors rotate the ball lead screw to position the machine table.
  2. Machine Tool: This machine tool always has a slide table and a spindle to control the position and speed. The machine table is controlled in the X and Y-axis direction, and the spindle is controlled in the Z-axis direction.
  3. Feedback Device: This system consists of transducers that act like sensors. It is also called a measuring system. It contains position and speed transducers that continuously monitor the position and speed of the cutting tool located at any instant. The MCU receives the difference between the reference signals and feedback signals to generate the signals from these transducers, and it uses the control signals for correcting the position and speed errors.
  4. Output Device: A monitor is used to display the programs, commands, and other useful data of the machine.

Advantages of CNC Machine

  1. Improves machining accuracy
  2. Enables complex tasks and detailing
  3. Creates flexibility in manufacturing
  4. Increases safety
  5. Boosts production volume
  6. Reduces setup-changeover time, etc.
  7. Operators can easily make changes and improvements that reduce delay time
  8. Automation can be easily implemented, leading to low human interaction
  9. Consistency in the accurate parts produced is also high

Disadvantages of CNC Machine

  1. Cost of a this machine and its parts is high.
  2. Parts of a this machine are costly, and its maintenance cost is quite high.
  3. It requires sophisticated tooling.
  4. A skilled programmer is required to make complex part programs.


  1. The applications of CNC include both for machine tool as well as non-machine tool areas.
  2. In the machine tool category, CNC is widely used for lathe, drill press, milling machine, grinding unit, laser, sheet bending machine, etc.
  3. Highly automated machine tools such as turning center and machining center which change the cutting tools automatically under CNC control have been developed.
  4. In the non-machine tool category, CNC applications include welding machines (arc and resistance), coordinate measuring machine, electronic assembly, tape laying, and filament winding machines for composites, etc.

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